I have not read the entire paper but will attempt to. Mind-blowing when you think about it. With the vastness of our galaxy let alone the universe, there seems to be more confidence that we may be alone if not practically that. It makes one question how there could not be a divine being behind the Earth and our creation. There are thought to be over 100 billion galaxies and trillions of stars in the universe. If life were the random result of the big bang a subsequent cosmic activities, where is it? Other studies have concluded that the number of stars and planets capable of creating and supporting life are extremely rare. To be continued.